Giovanni Bellini (1430 - 1516)
BELLINI (Bellini), Giovanni, also Dzhambellino (about 1430, Venice - 1516, ibid), one of the greatest painters of Italian Renaissance.
Came from a family of famous Venetian painters. He studied first at the father, Jacopo Bellini and Mantegna in his studio, where his wife was his sister Nikolloza. Traces of the influence of Mantegna are visible in one of the earliest paintings of Bellini «Prayer of the Cup» (London, National Gallery), similar to the same composition Mantegna (in London): the same rigid angularity of figure, petrified folds of garments, strict, simple person. However, in this as in other early paintings ( «Crucifixion», «The Dead Christ supported by angels» both of Venice, Museum Korrer) motifs Mantegna transformed otherwise, clear and poetic perception of the world, his paintings gradually becoming emotional restraint and spirituality, softness and the particular characteristic Bellini, bright mood of sadness.
In early 1470-ies. Bellini is fully transferred to the Dutch Technology clean oil (before he wrote tempera, combined with oil), which, beginning with Vasari, is associated with a stay in Venice in 1475/76 Antonello de Messina, who introduced the painter to the technique of writing «clean» paint on the plane to achieve the illusion of greater volume and depth of space, the rich color effects, and saturation of colors.
It appears that ca. 1475 Bellini traveled along the coast of the Adriatic, where he met with the art of Piero della Francesca. Under the impression of paintings by this artist «Coronation of Mary» (not preserved, was a central part of poliptiha for the church of Sant-Agostino in Borgo Sansepolkro), he wrote a song on the same plot ( «Madonna Pesaro», approx. 1475, the City Museum in Pesaro) . In this work the first time under the influence of Bellini paintings of Piero della Francesca begins to play a crucial role light: all the pieces are loaded in the light environment, changing paint colors are more warm, warm light and transparent.
Since 1470-ies. Bellini landscapes are becoming more open, brighter and poetic ( «Stigmatizing St. Francis», New York, Frick Collection; «St. Ieronim» for the main altar of the church of Santa Maria Mirakoli Venice, Washington, National Gallery, a collection of Kress; «Transfiguration », Naples, National Gallery of Capodimonte). Mysterious plot, perhaps the most famous Kartini Bellini, usually known as the «Sacred Allegory» (sometimes also «Souls in Purgatory», «Ozernaya Madonna»; Uffizi Gallery, Florence). It saw the illustration to the poem «Pilgrimage soul» Guillaume Degilvillya (1 st floor. 14.), An allegory of mercy, «holy interview». World of «Sacred Allegory» changed even, soft light, it reigns reverent silence Bellini created the first of those mysterious pictures, dreams, who later glorified his pupil Giorgione.
In 1479 Bellini appointed official painter of Venice, is starting work on the decoration, the Grand Council Chamber in the Palace of the Doges, replacing the elected to the earlier of his brother Gentile (he went to Istanbul to write a portrait of Sultan Mehmet II). Paintings by Giovanni at the scenes of Venetian history, died in a fire in 1577.
In his altar paintings type «Holy interview» with images of saints, the upcoming Madonna, Bellini increasingly abandon traditional forms poliptiha, combining the characters in a single space or an interior landscape. The peak of his art in 1480-ies. is a monumental altar of the church of San Dzhobbe (about 1483/85; 4,68 x 2,55; Venice, Academy Gallery). The altar was a stone frame, «continued» painted pilasters in the picture. Even the lighting in the Bellini painting focuses on the real source of light, making the painting inseparable from architecture. The viewer thus be seen as a chapel, floors and vault final apse, in the depths of which rises to the throne sit on the Madonna and saints are six. The quiet and solemn atmosphere of the altar an image suffused with the sublime and profound religious feeling, the illusion of deep space and natural light «confirmed» reality predstoyaniya holy Madonna and praying in the temple mountain world.
The author of biographies of Italian masters of the Renaissance, Giorgio Vasari in biography Bellini mentions that «he was introduced to the custom of Venice, that anyone who had any position, ordered his portrait or his or someone else ...» portrait scheme (pogrudnoe image in three-quarter turn to the landscape, or a neutral background with a balustrade in the foreground with the signature of the artist), he borrows from Antonello de Messina and Dutch people (especially, perhaps, Memlinga). Remained little portraits undoubtedly belonging brush Bellini, among them «Portrait of a Boy» (Birmingham), «Portrait of an unknown» (kon. 15., Paris, Louvre), «Portrait of Pietro Bemba» (ca. 1505, Hampton-court). Bellini Portraits brings together the state of reverie; aspirations to view underlines a tendency to dreaminess and contemplation (Bemba), or as in the most famous and perhaps the best portrait painted by the artist «Portrait dozha Leonardo Loredana» (ca. 1501, London, National Gallery) because of the nature and intellectual energy.
A special issue of its numerous art Bellini «Madonna», most of which are performed in the workshop of the artist and signed only his name, which often leads to difficulties in attribution. Previous «Madonna» Bellini images are close Mantegna (1460-ies., Paintings in the Carrara Academy, Bergamo and the Brera Gallery, Milan), but gradually become a classic of clarity and simplicity, the feeling enlightened muse. These paintings were created not for the church interior, but the chamber space at home or a private chapel, the figure of the Madonna Bellini likes to put on the background of the open landscape ( «Madonna in meadows», approx. 1505, National Gallery, London), sometimes severing the piece of colored cloth, on the sides of which the viewer sees dating gave ( «Madonna», Academy of Carrara, Bergamo).
At the end of life Bellini turned to scenes from ancient mythology, one of the last paintings the artist has become a mythological composition «Feast of Gods» to «camerino» Alfonso dEste (about 1514, finished Titsianom, Washington, National Gallery). The beauty and tranquility of landscape, calm posture and movements of characters deliberation, concentration of people give birth to an atmosphere of rest, similar to undisturbed bucolic simplicity, here Bellini remained faithful to his sense of harmony and clarity.
Life of Bellini, apparently was a calm and prosperous. He kept receiving orders, a large workshop and a large number of works beyond its walls, speak of the success, popularity and prosperity. Creativity Bellini turned Venice into an important center of Renaissance art, equal to the value of Florence and Rome. It is with the notion of creativity Bellini Venetian school of painting associated with the transparency of the air, shining, as if imbued with the sun, colors, even gold, light, soft and free painting style based on the subtleties of the cut-off molding. Two of the disciples Bellini and Giorgione Titsianu was destined to become the greatest Venetian painters of the High Renaissance.
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